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Anxiety Disorders

A. Marked and consistently manifest fear in or avoidance of at least two of the following situations:
  • (1) crowds;
  • (2) public places;
  • (3) travelling alone;
  • (4) travelling away from home.
B. Symptoms of anxiety in the feared situation at some time since the onset of the disorder, with at least two symptoms present together, on at least one occasion, from the list below, one of which must have been from items (1) to (4):

Autonomic arousal symptoms

  • (1) Palpitations or pounding heart, or accelerated heart rate.
  • (2) Sweating.
  • (3) Trembling or shaking.
  • (4) Dry mouth (not due to medication or dehydration).

Symptoms concerning chest and abdomen

  • (5) Difficulty breathing.
  • (6) Feeling of choking.
  • (7) Chest pain or discomfort.
  • (8) Nausea or abdominal distress (e.g. churning in stomach).

Symptoms concerning brain and mind

  • (9) Feeling dizzy, unsteady, faint or light-headed.
  • (10) Feelings that objects are unreal (derealization), or that one's self is distant or "not really here" (depersonalization).
  • (11) Fear of losing control, going crazy, or passing out.
  • (12) Fear of dying.

General symptoms

  • (13) Hot flushes or cold chills.
  • (14) Numbness or tingling sensations.
C. Significant emotional distress due to the avoidance or the anxiety symptoms, and a recognition that these are excessive or unreasonable.
D. Symptoms are restricted to or predominate in the feared situations or when thinking about them.